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156                  HISTORY OF PERSIA                 CHAP.
for a vigorous defence, three thousand balistae for hurling
javelins and five hundred catapults having been mounted
on the ramparts. The Mongols on their side made still
greater preparations, including seven hundred machines
to throw pots of burning naphtha ; but in the evenUhey
carried the city by assault and massacred every living
thing (including the cats and dogs) as a sacrifice to the
spirit of Togachar, pyramids of skulls being built as a
ghastly memorial of the feat of arms. The buildings
were then entirely demolished and the site was sown
with barley. I have shot sandgrouse within the area
surrounded by the broken-down walls of ancient
Nishapur, and I saw crops of barley growing in un-
conscious imitation of the Mongols' sowing.
The Capture of Herat.—The last great city of Khorasan
to be attacked was Herat. There a desperate resistance
was offered for eight days, but after the governor had
been killed Tuli received the submission of the in-
habitants and contented himself with putting the garrison
to death.
The Campaign against Jalal-u-Din, A.H. 618 (1221).
—Jalal-u-Din after defeating the superior force of Mongol
sowars at Nisa, a feat of arms which constituted the first
success gained over any body of Mongols in Persia,
proceeded to Nishapur. Here he remained three days,
and then continued his flight towards Ghazna. One
hour after his departure from Nishapur, a detachment of
Mongols arrived on the scene and picked up his trail.
Jalal-u-Din fled at a great pace, traversing one hundred
and twenty miles in the day, but on his arrival at Zuzan,
to the south of Khaf, the gates were shut on him. He
consequently continued his flight towards Herat, pursued
for some distance beyond Zuzan by the Mongols, but
finally reached Ghazna in safety.
There anarchy prevailed, but the people rallied to his
standard and in a short time he collected an army, with
which, m the spring of A.D. 1221, he marched north to
the neighbourhood of Bamian. He gained an initial
success by killing a thousand Mongols, which speedily
brought against him a force of thirty thousand men